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ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS): click here for more details.

Reviews on drug-induced cystitis

       Drake MJ, Nixon PM, Crew JP. Drug Saf 1998;19:45-55

Ketamine (used as recreational drug) 

  • Ketamine-Associated Ulcerative Cystitis: A New Clinical Entity. 
    Shahani R, Streutker C, Dickson B, Stewart RJ. Urology 2007;69:810-2 
    • ketamine is an anesthetic agent that is increasingly being used as a recreational drug
    • the authors describe a series of 9 patients, all of whom were daily ketamine users, who presented with severe dysuria, frequency, urgency, and gross hematuria; the urine cultures were sterile in all cases
    • CT revealed marked thickening of the bladder wall, a small capacity, and perivesicular stranding, consistent with severe inflammation; at cystoscopy, all patients had severe ulcerative cystitis. 
    • biopsies in 4 patients revealed epithelial denudation and inflammation with a mild eosinophilic infiltrate 
    • cessation of ketamine use, with the addition of pentosan polysulfate, appeared to provide some symptomatic relief

Tiaprofenic acid 


The non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug tiaprofenic acid may cause cystitis that is very similar to PBS/IC. Most cases are reversible on withdrawal of the drug. 



Eosinophilic cystitis

  • see also: eosinophlic cystitis not induced by drugs 

  • Eosinophilic cystitis induced by penicillin. 
    Tsakiri A, Balslev I, Klarskov P. Int Urol Nephrol 2004;36:159-61
    • a 30-year-old woman developed classic symptoms of painful bladder disease and eosinophilic cystitis as an adverse effect of penicillin for abdominal actinomycosis; the symptoms were reversible after stopping penicillin

CONFUSABLE DISEASES - Drug-Induced Cystitis

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