ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS): click here for more details.

       McCrery RJ, Appell RA. Curr Urol Rep 2006;7:363-9 

  • Bladder outlet obstruction in women: difficulties in the diagnosis.  
    Klijer R, Bar K, Bialek W. Urol Int 2004;73:6-10  
    • the authors conclude that bladder outlet obstruction exists in women with lower urinary tract symptoms  
    • pressure-flow studies and voiding cystourethrography are reliable modalities for confirming bladder outlet obstruction

CONFUSABLE DISEASES - Neurogenic Outlet Obstruciton