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ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS): 
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  • Screening for chlamydial infection: are we doing enough
    Miller WC. Lancet 2005;365:456-8 
    • Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection
    • in women, chlamydial infection causes significant reproductive-tract morbidity, including pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain; in men, chlamydia has also been implicated in infertility

  • Sexually active adolescents and young adults: a high-risk group for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
    Bavastrelli M, Midulla M, Rossi D, et al. J Travel Med 1998;5:57-60 
    • 130 sexually active young subjects were studied, aged 14-25 years, all living in the Rome, Italy, urban area
    • 30% of the subjects were asymptomatic, and 20.8% of the subjects were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis
    • urethritis/cystitis and vaginal pathology/discharge were the prevalent manifestations of illness among the females, while urethritis was the only clinical condition found in the males 
    • the authors conclude that in a series of young subjects, travel abroad, sex with more than one partner, and teen age, combined together, were significant risk factors for the acquisition of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection

  • Immunohistochemical detection of chlamydial antigens in association with cystitis.  
    Shurbaji MS, Dumler JS, Gage WR, et al. Am J Clin Pathol 1990;93:363-6
    • to investigate the etiologic role of Chlamydia trachomatis in cystitis, the authors used the immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against Chlamydia and examined paraffin sections from 36 cases of histologically proven cystitis
    • chlamydial antigens were detected in 12 of these cases 
    • underlying inflammation was usually chronic but did not have specific distinguishing features
    • 8 of the Chlamydia-positive biopsies were taken for follow-up of treated carcinoma, 2 were for hematuria, 1 for neurogenic bladder, and 1 for evaluation of sterile pyuria 
    • 11 of the 12 positive cases had a history of recent urologic instrumentation, in contrast to only 11 (46%) of 24 negative cases (P<0.02) 
    • the authors conclude that (a) Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend the urethra and infect the bladder urothelium; (b) urologic instrumentation enhances the ability of Chlamydia to reach the bladder; (c) Chlamydia trachomatis may play an etiologic role in cystitis.

CONFUSABLE DISEASES - Chlamydia Trachomatis