ESSIC uses the name bladder pain syndrome (BPS) instead of interstitial cystitis (IC) and/or painful bladder syndrome (PBS):
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Screening for chlamydial infection: are we doing enough?
Miller WC. Lancet 2005;365:456-8
• Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection
• in women, chlamydial infection causes significant reproductive-tract morbidity, including pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain; in men, chlamydia has also been implicated in infertility
Sexually active adolescents and young adults: a high-risk group for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.
Bavastrelli M, Midulla M, Rossi D, et al. J Travel Med 1998;5:57-60
• 130 sexually active young subjects were studied, aged 14-25 years, all living in the Rome, Italy, urban area
• 30% of the subjects were asymptomatic, and 20.8% of the subjects were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis
• urethritis/cystitis and vaginal pathology/discharge were the prevalent manifestations of illness among the females, while urethritis was the only clinical condition found in the males
• the authors conclude that in a series of young subjects, travel abroad, sex with more than one partner, and teen age, combined together, were significant risk factors for the acquisition of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection
Immunohistochemical detection of chlamydial antigens in association with cystitis.
Shurbaji MS, Dumler JS, Gage WR, et al. Am J Clin Pathol 1990;93:363-6
• to investigate the etiologic role of Chlamydia trachomatis in cystitis, the authors used the immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against Chlamydia and examined paraffin sections from 36 cases of histologically proven cystitis
• chlamydial antigens were detected in 12 of these cases
• underlying inflammation was usually chronic but did not have specific distinguishing features
• 8 of the Chlamydia-positive biopsies were taken for follow-up of treated carcinoma, 2 were for hematuria, 1 for neurogenic bladder, and 1 for evaluation of sterile pyuria
• 11 of the 12 positive cases had a history of recent urologic instrumentation, in contrast to only 11 (46%) of 24 negative cases (P<0.02)
• the authors conclude that (a) Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend the urethra and infect the bladder urothelium; (b) urologic instrumentation enhances the ability of Chlamydia to reach the bladder; (c) Chlamydia trachomatis may play an etiologic role in cystitis.